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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                  to

Commission file number 001-36228

 

Navient Corporation

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

46-4054283

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

123 Justison Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19801

 

(302) 283-8000

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

(Telephone Number)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common stock, par value $.01 per share

 

NAVI

 

The NASDAQ Global Select Market

6% Senior Notes due December 15, 2043

 

JSM

 

The NASDAQ Global Select Market

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None.

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes          No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes          No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes          No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes          No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

 

Smaller reporting company

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes          No  

The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020 was $1.3 billion (based on closing sale price of $7.03 per share as reported for the NASDAQ Global Select Market).

As of January 31, 2021, there were 183,771,633 shares of common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the proxy statement (the “2021 Proxy Statement”) relating to the Registrant’s 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, to be filed no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 


 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Organization of Our Form 10-K

The order and presentation of content in our Form 10-K differs from the traditional Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Form 10-K format. Our format is designed to improve readability and to better present how we organize and manage our business. See Appendix B, "Form 10-K Cross-Reference Index" for a cross-reference index to the traditional SEC Form 10-K format.

 

 

Page

Number

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements

1

Available Information

2

Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

2

 

 

Business

3

Overview and Fundamentals of Our Business

3

How We Organize Our Business

6

Human Capital

8

 

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

10

Selected Historical Financial Information and Ratios

10

The Year in Review

11

Navient’s Response to COVID-19

12

Results of Operations

14

Segment Results

16

Financial Condition

23

Liquidity and Capital Resources

29

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

31

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

35

Risk Management

44

 

 

Supervision and Regulation

47

Legal Proceedings

49

Risk Factors

50

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

63

 

 

Properties

67

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

68

Controls and Procedures

70

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

71

Executive Compensation

71

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

71

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

71

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

71

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

72

Signatures

76

Financial Statements

F-1

Appendix A – Description of Federal Family Education Loan Program

A-1

Appendix B – Form 10-K Cross-Reference Index

B-1

Glossary

G-1

 

 

 


 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING AND CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking” statements and other information that is based on management’s current expectations as of the date of this report. Statements that are not historical facts, including statements about our beliefs, opinions, or expectations and statements that assume or are dependent upon future events, are forward-looking statements and often contain words such as “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “seek,” “see,” “will,” “would,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “goals,” or “target.” Such statements are based on management's expectations as of the date of this filing and involve many risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties are discussed more fully under “Risk Factors” and include, but are not limited to the following:  

 

 

the continuing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and related risks;

 

the economic conditions and the creditworthiness of third parties;

 

increased defaults on education loans held by us;

 

the cost and availability of funding in the capital markets;

 

the transition away from the LIBOR reference rate to an alternative reference rate;  

 

higher or lower than expected prepayments of loans could change the expected net interest income we receive or cause the bonds issued by a securitization trust to be paid at a differently speed than anticipated;

 

our unhedged Floor Income is dependent on the future interest rate environment and therefore is variable;

 

a reduction in our credit ratings;

 

adverse market conditions or an inability to effectively manage our liquidity risk could negatively impact us;

 

the interest rate characteristics of our assets do not always match those of our funding arrangements;

 

our use of derivatives exposes us to credit and market risk;

 

our ability to continually and effectively align our cost structure with our business operations;

 

a failure of our operating systems, infrastructure or information technology systems;

 

failure by any third party providing us material services or products or a breach or violation of law by one of these third parties;

 

changes to applicable laws, rules, regulations and government policies and expanded regulatory and governmental oversight;

 

our work with government clients exposes us to additional risks inherent in the government contracting environment;

 

shareholder activism;

 

federal funding constraints and spending policy changes may result in disruption of federal payments for services we provide to the government;

 

shareholders’ percentage ownership in Navient may be diluted in the future;

 

reputational risk and social factors;

 

obligations owed to parties under various transaction agreements that were executed as part of the spin-off of Navient from SLM Corporation (the Spin-Off); and

 

acquisitions or strategic investments that we pursue.

Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this Form 10-K and in other documents we file from time to time with the SEC that disclose risks and uncertainties that may affect our business.  

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements also requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions including estimates and assumptions about future events. These estimates or assumptions may prove to be incorrect and actual results could differ materially. All forward-looking statements contained in this report are qualified by these cautionary statements and are made only as of the date of this report. We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements except as required by law.

Definitions for certain capitalized terms used but not otherwise defined in this Annual Report on Form 10-K can be found in the “Glossary” at the end of this report.

Through this discussion and analysis, we intend to provide the reader with some narrative context for how our management views our consolidated financial statements, additional context within which to assess our operating results, and information on the quality and variability of our earnings, liquidity and cash flows.

 

 

 


1


 

 

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Our website address is www.navient.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and file or furnish reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Copies of these reports, as well as any amendments to these reports, are available free of charge through our website at www.navient.com/investors, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC.  

In addition, copies of our Board Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct (which includes the code of ethics applicable to our Principal Executive Officer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer) and the governing charters for each committee of our Board of Directors are available free of charge on our website at www.navient.com/investors/corporate_governance, as well as in print to any shareholder upon request. We intend to disclose any amendments to or waivers from our Code of Business Conduct (to the extent applicable to our Principal Executive Officer or Principal Financial Officer) by posting such information on our website.

Information contained or referenced on the foregoing websites is not incorporated by reference into and does not form a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Further, the Company’s references to the URLs for these websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.

 

USE OF NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES

We prepare financial statements and present financial results in accordance with GAAP. However, we also evaluate our business segments and present financial results on a basis that differs from GAAP. We refer to this different basis of presentation as Core Earnings, which is a non-GAAP financial measure. We provide this Core Earnings basis of presentation on a consolidated basis and for each business segment because this is what we review internally when making management decisions regarding our performance and how we allocate resources. We also include this information in our presentations with credit rating agencies, lenders and investors. Because our Core Earnings basis of presentation corresponds to our segment financial presentations, we are required by GAAP to provide Core Earnings disclosures in the notes to our consolidated financial statements for our business segments.

In addition to Core Earnings, we present the following non-GAAP financial measures: Tangible Equity, Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio, Pro forma Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio, and Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization Expense (EBITDA) (for the Business Processing segment). See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis – Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a further discussion and a complete reconciliation between GAAP net income and Core Earnings.

 

 

 

 

 

 


2


 

 

Overview and Fundamentals of Our Business

Navient is a leading provider of education loan management and business processing solutions for education, healthcare, and government clients at the federal, state, and local levels. We help our clients and millions of Americans achieve success through technology-enabled financing, services and support.  

With a focus on data-driven insights, service, compliance and innovative support, Navient’s business consists of:

 

 

Federal Education Loans

We own a portfolio of $58.3 billion of federally guaranteed Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) Loans. We service and provide asset recovery services on this portfolio and for third parties, deploying data-driven approaches to support the success of our customers.

We service federal education loans for approximately 5.6 million customers on behalf of the U.S. Department of Education (ED). Our flexible and scalable infrastructure manages large volumes of complex transactions with continued customer experience and efficiency improvements.

 

Consumer Lending

We own, service and originate Private Education Loans that enable students to pursue higher education and economic opportunities. Our $21.1 billion private loan portfolio demonstrates high customer success rates. Our loan origination business assists borrowers in refinancing their education loan debt and supports students and families in financing their higher education. In 2020, we originated $4.6 billion in Private Education Loans.

 

Business Processing

We provide business processing solutions to a variety of public sector and health care organizations. We support over 500 clients – and their millions of clients, patients, and citizens – through a suite of solutions that leverages our scale, technology and customer experience expertise. Our data driven solutions enable our clients to focus on their missions and optimize their cash flow, and they enable individuals to successfully navigate complex programs, transactions, and decisions.

 

Superior Operational Performance with a Strong Customer Service and Compliance Commitment

 

We help our customers — both individuals and institutions — navigate the path to financial success through proactive service and innovative solutions.

 

Scalable, data-driven solutions. Annually, we support tens of millions of people to conduct hundreds of millions of transactions and interactions. Designed using configurable architecture, our systems are built for scale and rapid implementation. We harness the power of data to build tailored programs that optimize our clients’ results.

 

For example, in our education loan segments, we support approximately 10 million borrowers to navigate their path to successful repayment. We leverage our multichannel communication platform, predictive analytics, and decades of insight to stay in touch with borrowers and address challenges that may arise. As the COVID-19 pandemic hit, we quickly implemented payment relief options for millions of borrowers.

 

In our Business Processing segment, using cloud-based solutions, we rapidly staffed, trained, and activated several call centers of thousands of remote staff for states needing urgent support during the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

Across all our businesses, we use real-time dashboards and data visualization tools to monitor performance metrics and identify, track, and address trends and opportunities.

 


3


 

 

Simplify complex processes. On our clients’ behalf, we help individuals successfully navigate a broad spectrum of complex transactions.

 

For example, our staff and systems strive to streamline and simplify the student loan repayment process, so borrowers can more easily understand their available choices and make informed decisions for their situation. We simplified the government’s process for enrolling in federal income-driven repayment plans by creating an agent-assisted e-sign enrollment process, greatly increasing completion.

 

Improve customer experience and success. We continually make enhancements in an effort to improve customer experience, drawing from a variety of inputs including customer surveys, research panels, analysis of customer inquiries, transactions and activities, and complaint data, and regulator commentary. Across our businesses, our customer-facing representatives are trained and measured to provide empathetic, accurate support.

 

o

Repayment plan education and outreach: We help federal student loan borrowers understand the wide range of repayment options so they can make informed choices about the plans that align with their financial circumstances and goals. We continue to lead in enrolling customers in affordable repayment plans.

 

o

Advocating for enhancements to student loans: Navient has been a leader in recommending policy reforms that would enhance the student loan outcomes. For example, we have recommended improving financial literacy before borrowing, simplifying federal loan repayment options and encouraging college completion — reforms that we believe would make a meaningful difference for millions of Americans.

 

o

Office of the Customer Advocate: Our Office of the Customer Advocate, established in 1997, offers escalated assistance to customers. We are committed to working with customers and appreciate customer comments, which, combined with our own customer communication channels, help us improve the ways we assist our customers.

 

o

Private loan modification program: In 2009, we pioneered the creation of a loan modification program to help Private Education Loan borrowers needing additional assistance. As of December 31, 2020, approximately $950 million of our Private Education Loans were enrolled in this interest rate reduction program, helping customers through more affordable monthly payments while making progress in repaying their principal loan balance.

 

o

Serving military customers: Navient was the first student loan servicer to launch a dedicated military benefits customer service team, website (Navient.com/military), and toll-free number. Navient’s military benefits team supports service members and their families to access the benefits designed for them, including interest rate benefits, deferment and other options.

 

o

Financial literacy: We also continue to offer free resources to help customers and the general public build knowledge on personal finance topics, including videos, articles and online tools.

 

Commitment to compliance. Our rigorous compliance posture ensures adherence with laws and regulations and helps protect our clients, customers, employees and shareholders. We use a “Three Lines of Defense” compliance framework, considered best practice by the U.S. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC). This framework and other compliance protocols ensure we adhere to key industry laws and regulations including: Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACTA); Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA); Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA); Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA); Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA); Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA); Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); IRS Publication 1075; Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCRA); Military Lending Act (MLA); Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA); Unfair, Deceptive, or Abusive Acts and Practices (UDAAP); state laws; and state and city licensing.

Deliver superior performance. Navient delivers value for our clients and customers. Whether supporting student loan borrowers to successfully manage their loans, delivering new citizen services for public sector agencies, or helping a state manage backlogs or recover revenue to support essential services, we deliver results.

Federal loans serviced by Navient achieved a Cohort Default Rate (CDR) 26% better than our peers as calculated from the most recent CDR released by ED in September 2020. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we quickly and accurately delivered assistance to student loan borrowers. We are consistently a top performer in our asset recovery business and deliver superior service to our public and private sector clients. We regularly leverage data-driven insights, scale, technology and customer service to deliver value to our clients.


4


 

 

Our Business Processing segment regularly outperforms our clients’ expectations and the results delivered by our competition. For example:

 

o

On one recent contract, we delivered efficiency results 30% higher than our client’s other vendors.

 

o

We have increased our transportation clients’ revenue by up to 15%.  

 

Corporate Social Responsibility. We are committed to contributing to the social and economic wellbeing of our local communities, to fostering the success of our customers, to supporting a culture of integrity, inclusion and equality in our workforce, and to integrating environmental responsibility into our business. More information about our environmental, social and governance commitments is available at about.Navient.com.

 

Strong Financial Performance Resulting in a Strong Capital Return

 

Our 2020 results continue to demonstrate the strength of our business model and our ability to deliver predictable and meaningful cash flow and earnings in all types of economic environments. Adjusted Core Earnings(1) per share grew 29% from the prior year and our three-year adjusted Core Earnings(1) per share grew at a compound annual growth rate of 28%.  

 

Our significant earnings generate significant capital which results in a strong capital return to our investors. Navient expects to continue to return excess capital to shareholders through dividends and share repurchases in accordance with our capital allocation policy.

 

By optimizing capital adequacy and allocating capital to highly accretive opportunities, including organic growth and acquisitions, we remain well positioned to pay dividends and repurchase stock, while maintaining appropriate leverage that supports our credit ratings and ensures ongoing access to capital markets.

 

(Dollars and shares in millions)

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Shares repurchased

 

 

30.6

 

 

 

34.5

 

Reduction in shares outstanding

 

 

14

%

 

 

13

%

Total repurchases in dollars

 

$

400

 

 

$

440

 

Dividends paid

 

$

123

 

 

$

147

 

 

At December 31, 2020, $600 million remained in share repurchase authorization.

To inform our capital allocation decisions, we use the Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio, in addition to other metrics. As anticipated, the implementation of ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses” (CECL), on January 1, 2020, reduced our capital ratios, which we have been rebuilding throughout 2020. In addition, our GAAP equity was reduced as a result of the net mark-to-market losses related to derivative accounting primarily due to the significant decline in interest rates in 2020. Our Pro forma Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio(1) at December 31, 2020, which excludes the cumulative net mark-to-market losses related to derivative accounting that will reverse to zero as the contracts mature, was 7.1%.

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

1Q-20

 

 

2Q-20

 

 

3Q-20

 

 

4Q-20

 

 

YTD-20

 

Capital Returned(2)

 

$

366

 

 

$

31

 

 

$

96

 

 

$

30

 

 

$

523

 

Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio(1)

 

 

3.2

%

 

 

3.6

%

 

 

4.1

%

 

 

5.0

%

 

 

 

 

Pro forma Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio(1)

 

 

5.3

%

 

 

6.0

%

 

 

6.4

%

 

 

7.1

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

Item is a non-GAAP financial measure. For a description and reconciliation, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”         

(2)

Capital Returned is defined as share repurchases and dividends paid.


5


 

How We Organize Our Business

We operate our business in three primary segments: Federal Education Loans, Consumer Lending and Business Processing.  

Federal Education Loans Segment

In this segment, Navient owns FFELP Loans and performs servicing and asset recovery services on our FFELP Loan portfolio. We also service and perform asset recovery services on federal education loans owned by ED and other institutions. Our servicing quality, data-driven strategies, and multichannel education about federal repayment options translate into positive results for the millions of borrowers we serve.

We generate revenue primarily through net interest income on the FFELP Loan portfolio as well as servicing and asset recovery services revenue. This segment is expected to generate significant earnings and cash flow over the remaining life of the portfolio.

Navient’s portfolio of FFELP Loans as of December 31, 2020 was $58.3 billion. We expect this portfolio to have an amortization period in excess of 20 years, with a 7-year remaining weighted average life. The segment net interest margin was 0.99% in 2020. Navient’s goal is to support customers to successfully pay off their loans while optimizing cash flows generated by our FFELP Loan portfolio. As a result of the long-term funding strategy used for our FFELP Loan portfolio and the guarantees provided on these loans, the portfolio generates consistent and predictable cash flows. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 91% of the FFELP Loans held by Navient were funded to term with non-recourse, long-term securitization debt.

FFELP Loans are insured or guaranteed by state or not-for-profit agencies and are protected by contractual rights to recovery from the United States pursuant to guaranty agreements among ED and these agencies. These guaranty agreements generally cover at least 97% of a FFELP Loan’s principal and accrued interest for loans that default. Legislation enacted in 2010 discontinued the FFELP program as of July 1, 2010, while keeping terms and conditions of previous education loans made under the program intact. As a result of the FFELP program being discontinued, this segment is expected to wind down over time.

Our servicing contract with ED is through June 2021 with an additional six-month extension available. In addition, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 enacted in December 2020, enables ED to extend the contract for an additional two years through the end of 2023.  As of December 31, 2020, we serviced loans for approximately 5.6 million customers under this contract.

 


6


 

 

Consumer Lending Segment

In this segment, Navient owns, originates, acquires and services high-quality private education loans. We believe our more than 45 years of experience, product design, digital marketing strategies, and origination and servicing platform provide a unique competitive advantage. We see meaningful growth opportunities in originating Private Education Loans to financially responsible consumers, generating attractive long-term risk adjusted returns. We generate revenue primarily through net interest income on our Private Education Loan portfolio.

Through our Earnest and NaviRefi brands, our refinancing loan products enable college graduates and professionals to refinance their student loans at lower interest rates with consumer-friendly terms. At December 31, 2020, Navient held $8.2 billion of Private Education Refinance Loans, with 2020 originations of $4.6 billion, a 7% decrease from $4.9 billion in 2019. This decrease was due to a purposeful reduction in marketing efforts in the second quarter in response to the uncertain economic environment related to COVID-19.

 

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

2020

 

Loan originations

 

$

2,800

 

 

$

4,903

 

 

$

4,562

 

 

Navient’s total portfolio of Private Education Loans as of December 31, 2020 was $21.1 billion. We expect the portfolio to have an amortization period in excess of 20 years, with a 5-year remaining weighted average life. The  segment net interest margin was 3.20% in 2020. Our goal is to support our customers to successfully pay off their loans, while optimizing the cash flows generated by our Private Education Loan portfolio.

In 2019, through our Earnest brand, we launched a private education loan offering consumer-friendly features to college students and their cosigners who need additional funding to pursue higher education.

We carefully manage the credit risk of our portfolio through rigorous underwriting, high-quality servicing and risk mitigation practices, and appropriate use of forbearance and loan modification programs. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 68% of the Private Education Loans held by Navient were funded to term with non-recourse, long-term securitization debt.


7


 

Business Processing Segment

In this segment, Navient performs business processing services for over 500 government and healthcare clients.

 

Government services: We provide state governments, agencies, court systems, municipalities, and parking and tolling authorities with expert service, leveraging our scale, integrated technology solutions and data-driven approach. Our support enables our clients to better serve their constituents, meet rapidly changing needs, reduce their operating expenses, manage risk and maximize revenue opportunities.  

 

Healthcare services: We perform revenue cycle outsourcing, accounts receivable management, extended business office support, consulting engagements and public health programs. We offer customizable solutions for our clients that include hospitals, hospital systems, medical centers, large physician groups, other healthcare providers and departments of public health.  

We see meaningful growth opportunities as we leverage integrated technology solutions, superior data-driven strategies, customer service expertise, operating efficiency, and regulatory compliance and risk management infrastructure to extend our business processing services into new markets. For example, in 2020 we supported states in providing unemployment benefits and COVID-19 contact tracing and vaccine coordination services in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. Navient generated EBITDA(1) of $57 million in 2020, up $8 million, or 16%, from 2019.

Other Segment

Our Other segment consists of our corporate liquidity portfolio, gains and losses incurred on the repurchase of debt, unallocated expenses of shared services and restructuring/other reorganization expenses.

Human Capital

Employing a talented team is central to the success of Navient’s many business lines, and our attractive value proposition for prospective and current employees includes a strong and positive cultural framework, comprehensive benefits and competitive compensation, and a commitment to diversity and fair and equitable treatment. We succeed in delivering business results by attracting, retaining, motivating and developing a skilled and energized workforce.

 

Core Values and Code of Conduct. Our employees work to enhance the financial success of our customers by delivering innovative solutions and insights with compassion and personalized service. Our employees are guided by our core values:

 

 

We strive to be the best. By relentlessly pursuing the right solutions, we deliver on our promises to each other and those we serve.

 

We’re stronger together. We succeed because we’re inclusive and authentic, and we know good ideas can come from anywhere and anyone.

 

We earn the trust of our customers and colleagues. We hold each other accountable and act with integrity.

 

We innovate always and everywhere. We empower each other to think differently, develop ourselves and grow our Company.

 

At Navient, we understand that our reputation begins and ends with our individual and collective integrity, and our adherence to high ethical standards. Our unwavering approach to conducting business with integrity is clearly communicated through our Code of Business Conduct, which provides clear principles and sets high expectations for all Navient employees, officers and directors.

 

Community Engagement. Our team also supports the communities where we live and work. The Navient Community Fund supports organizations that work to address the root causes that limit financial success for all Americans. Through employee-led fundraising efforts, Team Navient gives back to our local communities by supporting a variety of local nonprofit organizations serving thousands of families each year.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)    Item is a non-GAAP financial measure. For a description and reconciliation, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”


8


 

 

Total Rewards. Navient offers competitive, sound and equitable pay that is designed to attract, retain and motivate highly qualified employees. It is designed to ensure that the total compensation paid to our employees is appropriate in a market context and provides a mix of fixed and variable elements that appropriately balance risk while rewarding performance aligned with the Company’s long-term goals. The Company maintains a comprehensive governance program to administer incentive compensation programs which reward staff and management for the achievement of business results, customer satisfaction, and compliance with regulatory requirements. Navient provides a comprehensive and competitive benefits package to assist the needs of employees and their families. In support of overall wellbeing, we take a holistic approach, providing our employees with resources to assist in managing their physical, emotional and financial health, such as medical plan choices; a 401(k) savings plan with a 5% match; an employee stock purchase program; generous paid time off and holiday schedule; life and disability insurance; adoption assistance; tuition reimbursement; and numerous health support and wellness programs.

 

Employee Engagement and Development. Competitive pay and benefits are partnered with positive engagement, career development and succession planning to keep and build a strong team.

 

 

Maintaining strong employee engagement is a priority for Navient, and we routinely conduct engagement surveys via an independent firm allowing us to better understand employee morale, satisfaction, and engagement at Navient. We complete a rigorous review of results for each business unit and division, utilize action planning teams to analyze and interpret results, and address areas of opportunity to improve engagement and retention.

 

We offer opportunities for employees to participate in both internal and external programs to support their growth and development. An example is the Leadership Development Program for high-performing front-line and mid-level leaders who demonstrate effective leadership practices and are ready for further development.  

 

Succession planning and preparation is conducted on an annual basis to assess Navient’s bench strength and readiness to backfill for all leadership positions in the top three levels at the Company, and development plans guide team members in becoming ever more ready for their next career advancement.

 

Inclusion, Diversity and Equity. With a commitment to inclusion, diversity and equity, Navient maintains a workplace where employees are welcomed and respected for who they are as individuals. To attract a diverse population of potential employees Navient markets all open positions through over 100 diversity job boards, extensive national, state, and community-based alliances, and job banks in all 50 states and US territories. Navient signed on to the White House Equal Pay Pledge; has been recognized by the Human Rights Campaign via its Corporate Equality Index; is a member of the Veterans Jobs Mission; and has been recognized as a Military Friendly Employer and Military Friendly Spouse Employer.  We are committed to ensuring each of our employees feels welcomed, valued, and included, and can bring their whole selves to work so they can contribute in a meaningful way.​ We know that being deliberately inclusive creates a diverse, highly engaged workforce that drives positive Company performance.​  We fuel innovation and growth by providing opportunities for employees with diverse perspectives to come together and work toward new solutions to enhance the financial success of our customers, and we provide compassionate, personalized service with a workforce that reflects and understands our diverse customer base.  

 

Team Size. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 5,560 regular employees and approximately 1,850 temporary employees. Nearly all of our temporary employees were hired to support the expanding needs of clients in providing critical COVID-19 services to their constituents. None of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements.

 

9


 

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion and analysis also contains forward-looking statements and should also be read in conjunction with the disclosures and information contained in “Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements” and “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

The objective of this discussion and analysis is to allow investors to view the company from management’s perspective.  Accordingly, we provide the reader with narrative context for how our management views our consolidated financial statements, additional context within which to assess our operating results, and information on the quality and variability of our earnings, liquidity and cash flows. The discussion that follows is primarily focused on 2020 versus 2019 results. Discussion and analysis of 2019 results compared to 2018 is included under item 7., “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 as filed with the SEC on February 27, 2020.

Selected Historical Financial Information and Ratios

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

(In millions, except per share data)

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

GAAP Basis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income

 

$

412

 

 

$

597

 

 

$

395

 

Diluted earnings per common share

 

$

2.12

 

 

$

2.56

 

 

$

1.49

 

Weighted average shares used to compute diluted earnings per share

 

 

195

 

 

 

233

 

 

 

264

 

Net interest margin, Federal Education Loans segment

 

 

.98

%

 

 

.78

%

 

 

.73

%

Net interest margin, Consumer Lending segment

 

 

3.29

%

 

 

3.36

%

 

 

3.32

%

Return on assets

 

 

.47

%

 

 

.63

%

 

 

.37

%

Dividends per common share

 

$

.64

 

 

$

.64

 

 

$

.64

 

Return on common stockholders’ equity

 

 

17

%

 

 

18

%

 

 

11

%

Dividend payout ratio

 

 

30

%

 

 

25

%

 

 

43

%

Average equity/average assets

 

 

2.60

%

 

 

3.39

%

 

 

3.34

%

Total assets

 

$

87,412

 

 

$

94,903

 

 

$

104,176

 

Total borrowings

 

$

83,945

 

 

$

90,198

 

 

$

98,941

 

Total Navient Corporation stockholders’ equity

 

$

2,433

 

 

$

3,336

 

 

$

3,519

 

Book value per common share

 

$

13.06

 

 

$

15.49

 

 

$

14.22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Core Earnings Basis(1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income

 

$

631

 

 

$

607

 

 

$

519

 

Diluted earnings per common share

 

$

3.24

 

 

$

2.60

 

 

$

1.96

 

Adjusted diluted earnings per common share(1)

 

$

3.40

 

 

$

2.64

 

 

$

2.09

 

Weighted average shares used to compute diluted earnings per share

 

 

195

 

 

 

233

 

 

 

264

 

Net interest margin, Federal Education Loans segment

 

 

.99

%

 

 

.83

%

 

 

.83

%

Net interest margin, Consumer Lending segment

 

 

3.20

%

 

 

3.30

%

 

 

3.24

%

Return on assets

 

 

.71

%

 

 

.64

%

 

 

.49

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Education Loan Portfolios(2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ending FFELP Loans, net

 

$

58,284

 

 

$

64,575

 

 

$

72,253

 

Ending Private Education Loans, net

 

 

21,079

 

 

 

22,245

 

 

 

22,245

 

Ending total education loans, net

 

$

79,363

 

 

$

86,820

 

 

$

94,498

 

Average FFELP Loans

 

$

61,522

 

 

$

68,271

 

 

$

76,971

 

Average Private Education Loans

 

 

22,720

 

 

 

22,512

 

 

 

23,281

 

Average total education loans

 

$

84,242

 

 

$

90,783

 

 

$

100,252

 

 

(1)

Item is a non-GAAP financial measure. For a description and reconciliation, see the section titled “Non-GAAP Financial Measures – Core Earnings.”

(2)

Balances are the same for GAAP and Core Earnings basis.

 

 


10


 

The Year in Review

We prepare financial statements and present financial results in accordance with GAAP. However, we also evaluate our business segments and present financial results on a basis that differs from GAAP. We refer to this different basis of presentation as Core Earnings. We provide this Core Earnings basis of presentation on a consolidated basis and for each business segment because this is what we review internally when making management decisions regarding our performance and how we allocate resources. We also include this information in our presentations with credit rating agencies, lenders and investors. Because our Core Earnings basis of presentation corresponds to our segment financial presentations, we are required by GAAP to provide certain Core Earnings disclosures in the notes to our consolidated financial statements for our business segments. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures — Core Earnings” for a further discussion and a complete reconciliation between GAAP net income and Core Earnings.

2020 GAAP net income was $412 million ($2.12 diluted earnings per share), compared with $597 million ($2.56 diluted earnings per share) in the prior year. See “Results of Operations – Comparison of 2020 Results with 2019” for a discussion of the primary contributors to the change in GAAP earnings between periods.

2020 Core Earnings(1) net income was $631 million ($3.24 diluted Core Earnings per share), compared with $607 million ($2.60 diluted Core Earnings per share) for 2019. Full-year 2020 and 2019 adjusted diluted Core Earnings(1) per share were $3.40 and $2.64, respectively. See “Segment Results” for a discussion of the primary contributors to the change in Core Earnings between periods.

 

Financial highlights of 2020 versus 2019 include:

 

Federal Education Loans segment:

 

net income of $537 million, up 2%;

 

net interest income increased 8%;

 

FFELP Loan delinquency rate decreased 21% from 11.7% to 9.2%; forbearance rate increased 13% from 12.2% to 13.8%;

Consumer Lending segment:

 

net income increased $44 million, or 14%;

 

originated $4.6 billion of Private Education Refinance Loans;  

 

Private Education Loan delinquency rate decreased 43% from 4.6% to 2.6%; forbearance rate increased 44% from 2.7% to 3.9%;

Business Processing segment:

 

EBITDA(1) increased $8 million, or 16%, to $57 million, primarily due to revenue earned from contracts to support states in providing unemployment benefits and contact tracing services;  

 

revenue increased $46 million, or 18%, to $304 million;

Capital, funding and liquidity:

 

Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio(1) of 5.0%; Pro forma Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio(1) of 7.1%;

 

paid $123 million in common stock dividends;

 

repurchased $400 million (or 14%) of common shares outstanding; $600 million repurchase authority remains outstanding;

 

retired $1.8 billion of senior unsecured debt, including $768 million scheduled to mature in 2021; and

 

issued $700 million of unsecured debt, $6.3 billion of Private Education Loan asset-backed securities (ABS) and $1.5 billion of FFELP ABS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) 

Item is a non-GAAP financial measure. For a description and reconciliation, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

 

11


 

The World Health Organization first declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic on March 13, 2020 by which time the economic impact of the crisis was beginning to take hold, impacting the global economy and our results of operations. The COVID-19 pandemic was subsequently declared a national emergency. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many state, local, and foreign governments have put in place quarantines, executive orders, shelter-in-place orders, and similar government orders and restrictions in order to control the spread of the disease. Such orders or restrictions have resulted in business closures, work stoppages, slowdowns and delays, work-from-home policies, travel restrictions, and cancellation or postponement of events. They have also resulted in a general decline in economic activity and consumer confidence and increases in job losses and unemployment. While certain COVID-19 vaccines have recently been approved and have become available for use in the United States, we are unable to predict when those vaccines will become widely available, how widely utilized the vaccines will be, whether they will be effective in preventing the spread of COVID-19, and when or if normal economic activity and business operations will resume. In this section, we will highlight our response to the global pandemic and its continuing impact on our business and operations. While we have experience in managing our business through economic crises in the past, there is a substantial amount of uncertainty associated with this crisis. We suggest that the information below should be read in conjunction with our risk factors included in “Risk Factors — The Impact of COVID-19 and Related Risk” in this 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K.  

Our Team Members

 

As this crisis evolved, we took early action to protect the health and safety of our employees. We expanded our work-from-home capabilities and implemented best practices in our facilities with regard to safety and hygiene to protect those who were unable to work remotely. We were able to quickly and successfully enable 90% of our team to work from home. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 85% of our team remains on work-from-home status. As a result of these steps, the pandemic has not adversely affected our ability to maintain our operations or service our customers and borrowers. We currently anticipate that some of our team members will begin returning to the office on a limited basis in the future. As we plan for the return to office process, it is likely to take place in stages and we anticipate that the environment will require a continuation of various safety protocols that are already in place including requiring the use of face coverings and distancing.

Customers and Education Loan Performance

On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) was signed into law. In compliance with the CARES Act and through subsequent legislative and executive actions, we have been instructed to place all loans owned by ED into forbearance and suspend payments and interest accrual until September 30, 2021. While the CARES Act applies only to loans owned by ED, our FFELP and Private Education Loan portfolios have also been impacted by the pandemic and we have offered COVID-19 relief options such as the use of forbearance to those borrowers. Private Education Loans in forbearance decreased to $844 million or 3.9% of the portfolio at December 31, 2020, after peaking at $3.4 billion or 14.7% during the second quarter of 2020 due to the COVID-19 forbearance granted to borrowers. This compared to $604 million or 2.7% of the portfolio at December 31, 2019. Despite the COVID-19 crisis, we have seen most borrowers continue to make payments according to their payment plans. And while forbearance rates have risen, the balance of loans delinquent has declined – our Private Education Loan delinquency rate declined from 4.6% at December 31, 2019 to 2.6% as of December 31, 2020. This decline in the delinquency rate is partially due to the increased granting of forbearance discussed above. Our Private Education Loan charge-offs declined 49% to $184 million in 2020 compared with $364 million in 2019. This decline was due to the strength of the economy heading into March 2020 as well as a result of the COVID-19 forbearance granted to borrowers. Defaults in both our Private Education Loan and FFELP Loan portfolios were significantly lower in 2020 than 2019 as well as lower than what had been expected at the start of the year primarily as a result of the increased use of payment relief options. Total provision for loan losses in 2020 was $155 million which was primarily due to an increase in expected losses related to COVID-19. The provision in 2020 primarily relates to increases in defaults as a result of COVID-19 that we expect to occur in 2021 and 2022 given the default timing impact from the use of forbearances. Our total reserves were $1.86 billion (excluding the expected future recoveries on charged-off loans) at December 31, 2020 which represent reserves equal to 7.1% of our Private Education Loans and 0.05% of our FFELP Loan portfolio. These reserve levels cover future expected defaults of approximately 18% in our FFELP portfolio and approximately 12% in our legacy private (non-refinance loan) portfolio. While we are paying close attention to the needs of our customers, it is too early to know the full impact of this crisis or the path and timing of the recovery.

In the first quarter of 2020, our Private Education Refinance Loan originations of $1.9 billion represented a 92% increase over the year-ago quarter. While demand continued to be very strong for our products, beginning in March, we reduced our marketing efforts and tightened credit until we had greater visibility into the uncertainty and volatility in the capital markets and the overall economic outlook. This resulted in second-quarter originations of $238 million. With improved visibility in both credit and funding costs, we restarted marketing efforts in the third quarter and increased third-quarter and fourth-quarter originations to $1.3 billion and $1.1 billion of loans, respectively.  Total originations were $4.6 billion in 2020 compared to $4.9 billion in 2019. We expect 2021 originations to be higher than 2020 if the economy continues to improve.  


12


 

Clients and Business Processing Segment Performance

 

In our Business Processing Segment (BPS), 2020 EBITDA(1) increased 16% to $57 million from $49 million a year ago. This increase is a result of being able to transition hundreds of our experienced BPS colleagues to support state clients working to help residents access unemployment benefits implemented in the CARES Act, as well as to perform contact tracing and vaccine administration services. These new services generated revenue in the second half of 2020 that more than offset the negative revenue impact BPS is experiencing as a result of COVID-19 which includes significantly lower transaction-related placements in both government services and health care revenue cycle management. In 2021, we expect the revenue from the unemployment contracts related to the CARES Act and contact tracing contracts to decline as the economy recovers and the need decreases. We also expect revenue from the core parts of the business to continue to improve to pre COVID-19 levels if the economy continues to improve.

Liquidity, Financings and Capital

The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the capital markets was significant during the early part of the crisis, decreasing the number of transactions brought to market and increasing the pricing of those that were successfully marketed. However, in the second half of 2020 the capital markets began to improve with ready access to the markets, albeit at a higher cost than pre COVID-19 levels. From April 2020 to December 2020 we issued $6.0 billion of term ABS, extended a FFELP Loan ABCP facility to 2022, extended a Private Education Loan facility to 2021 and expanded the total capacity in our Private Education Refinance Loan ABCP facility from $2 billion to $2.6 billion. Looking forward, while the cost of financing may be elevated, it has decreased from the second-quarter 2020 peak, and we believe that the ABS and unsecured debt markets remain a viable source of funding. In January and February 2021, we issued $500 million of unsecured debt and $1.8 billion of ABS at or near pre COVID-19 cost of funds. Throughout the crisis we have maintained a strong liquidity position. As of December 31, 2020, we had $1.7 billion of primary sources of liquidity, $1.2 billion of which was cash. We also had, as of December 31, 2020, additional capacity in our funding facilities of $2.2 billion for Private Education Loans and $506 million for FFELP Loans. In addition, cash flow from our loan portfolio and services contracts remains strong and was greater than our original forecast for 2020 as our very seasoned loan portfolio experiences lower levels of stress.

We ended the year with an Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio(1) of 5.0%. The decline in our Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio(1) from 7.6% as of December 31, 2019 is partially attributable to implementing CECL which, as expected, reduced our capital levels. We expect our capital levels to continue to rebuild over the course of 2021. In addition, our GAAP equity was reduced in 2020 as a result of the net mark-to-market losses related to derivative accounting recognized under GAAP that cumulatively totaled $616 million (after tax) as of December 31, 2020. This decrease will reverse over time as these derivatives mature. The resulting Pro forma Adjusted Tangible Equity Ratio(1), which excludes these cumulative mark-to-market losses, was 7.1% at December 31, 2020.

Other Matters

 

From an accounting, reporting and disclosure perspective, COVID-19 and the related work-from-home policies did not negatively impact our ability to close our books, manage our financial systems, or maintain our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures. See “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” for a discussion of how COVID-19 impacted our allowance for loan loss and our conclusion of goodwill not being impaired.

 

We have successfully implemented our business continuity plans in response to COVID-19. We do not foresee requiring material expenditures to continue to operate in a work-from-home environment nor do we expect material expenditures to return to work in the office. We do not anticipate a material adverse impact of COVID-19 on our supply chain and we do not expect the anticipated impact of COVID-19 to materially change the relationship between costs and revenues. We have not been adversely impacted by travel restrictions and border closures nor do we anticipate that our operations will be materially impacted by any constraints on our human capital resources and productivity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) 

Item is a non-GAAP financial measure. For a description and reconciliation, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”


13


 

Results of Operations

GAAP Income Statements

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Increase (Decrease)

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

2020 vs. 2019

 

 

2019 vs. 2018

 

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

$

 

 

%

 

 

$

 

 

%

 

Interest income